Progress in the Detection of Liver Disease of Mass Spectrometry Technology
Liver disease is a serious hazard to human health disease. Its etiology is complicated, including infection, tumor and other common factors, as well as including special autoimmune factors, congenital diseases, etc. Clinical most common chronic liver disease is cause by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and there are 3.7 billion and 1.3 million patients in the world. Chronic hepatitis often slow progress to liver fibrosis or cirrhosis and may eventually develop to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatic cell cancer has a high mortality rate. According to the World Health Organization, each year around the world there are 600 000 people died of HCC. In addition to virus infection, drug and poison damage, malnutrition and alcoholism, metabolic disorders and other factors are also the main reasons of liver disease.
Mass spectrometry technology development status
Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) technology are the most commonly used detection methods. Especially the technology has attracted wide attention of scholars in the metabonomics research value. Metabonomics study mostly the endogenous small molecules within the relative molecular weight of 1000. It usually uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technologies to separate and detect human urine or plasma metabolites in biological sample spectra, and determine the pathological and physiological state of birth of the object and find out the related biomarkers combined with pattern recognition method. Compared to proteomics research, metabolite molecular detection is easier, and more suitable as markers of disease.
The application of mass spectrometry in the detection of alcoholic liver disease
Some scholars found part protein or metabolite molecules with ALD diagnosis through conditional mouse model establishment of alcohol dependence and mass spectrometric detection. They used proteomics technology of alcohol induced mouse model for analysis of differential protein expression. They extracted cytoplasmic membrane of liver cells, and detected by using bidirectional technology and iTRAQ technology. As a result, a total of 15 different proteins were detected, and the keratin - 8 was tested for significance in two different methods. They thought the molecules might play a role in the liver damage by alcohol.