Research methods of biological evolution and point mutation
During the long development process system, a point mutation provides the material for the biological evolution. At present, molecular biology experiments are used to construct the mutant gene, and to study the directed evolution of the organism.
Virus achieves the diversity and evolution through gene mutation (spontaneous mutation and induced mutation), chromosome aberration (transfer, insertion, deletion, recombination, rearrangement, etc.) and natural selection. In general, the DNA virus survives with the host, whereas the RNA virus uses a variety of hosts—when faced with a risk of the host, it transfers to another host to replicate.
There are at least about 400,000 species of plant species that have been experienced the evolution from aquatic to terrestrial life and from the lower plant to the higher plant. Plants that can't leave the water—the eukaryotic algae; the transitional land plant—the moss; the terrestrial plant—the vascular plant.
The evolution of the human species is related a variety of environmental factors, including temperature adaptability evolution, UV radiation adaptive evolution, sunshine time adaptive evolution, precipitation adaptive evolution, hypobaric hypoxia adaptive evolution, environmental pathogens adaptive evolution and environmental sources adaptation evolution, etc.
Oligonucleotide induced gene point mutation
A gene is cloned into a plasmid vector. A pair of primers are synthesized by artificial synthesis of a pair of primers. The mutation is located near the center of the primer, and the two ends have enough sequences to guarantee their pairing and PCR amplification.
In vitro induction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Including error prone PCR, DNA shuffling, staggered extension, DNA family shuffling, RD-PCR reorganization, messy, temporary template fitted technology, single stranded DNA mediated family shuffling and fusion PCR.
Conclusion and prospect
Evolution is an inevitable result of any living being in constant development and change. Molecular biology has provided powerful means and methods for the research of directed evolution. But it also has problems. For example, accidentally, DNA mutation will continue towards opposite human evolution direction. Once these mutations escape the control of the immune system, they will cause cancer.